Maternal & Child Health Newsletter 4/15/05

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Maternal & Child Health Newsletter 4/15/05

Postby denise » Fri Apr 15, 2005 08:44 pm

MCH Alert
Tomorrow's Policy Today

Maternal and Child Health Library

This and past issues of the MCH Alert are available at

April 15, 2005

1. Report Presents Trends in U.S. Children's and Adolescents' Well-Being
Over a 28-Year Period
2. Article Highlights Research on Factors that Influence Consumers'
Decisions to Eat Fruit and Vegetables
3. Journal Supplement Examines Training and Practice in Community Pediatrics
4. Authors Explore Role of Attitudes, Support, and Perceived Control in
Breastfeeding Initiation Among Women with Low Incomes
5. Article Assesses Relationship Between Children's Early Home
Environments and Bullying



2005 Report: The Foundation for Child Development Index of Child
Well-Being (CWI), 1975-2003 with Projections for 2004 updates measures of
trends in the well-being, or quality of life, of U.S. children and
adolescents. The report, prepared by Duke University, provides details
about the CWI for all children, discusses improvements during the period
in the safety/behavioral concerns domain (which included indicators of
trends in adolescent childbearing, violent crime involvement, and
substance use), and highlights a number of social changes and public
policies that may account for the improvements. Appendices present
information on the methods of construction, a list of the 28 key national
indicators of child well-being in the United States, and sources of data
for the CWI. The report is available at



Understanding Economic and Behavioral Influences on Fruit and Vegetable
Choices provides information on the economic, social, and behavioral
factors influencing consumers' fruit and vegetable choices. The article
was featured in the April 2005 issue of Amber Waves, a publication of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service. The article
examines how cost, household composition and cultural background, and
food-related lifestyle changes influence consumers' fruit and vegetable
choices. The authors also examine demographic and socioeconomic factors
that may affect fruit and vegetable consumption in the future, and
opportunities and challenges for promoting produce consumption. The
information is intended for use by nutritionists and others interested in
finding more effective strategies to promote fruit and vegetable
consumption. It is available at ... hoices.htm.



The April 2005 Pediatrics supplement, Community Pediatrics: Making Child
Health at the Community Level an Integral Part of Pediatric Training and
Practice, contains a collection of articles about training and practice in
community pediatrics that offer specific examples of clinical practice and
research. The supplement's articles and commentaries discuss epidemiologic
and historic perspectives on community pediatrics; examples of successful
programs and training; and an agenda and next steps for research, program,
and policy change. The supplement is available to Pediatrics subscribers
at ... ml#SUPPLS1.

Kaczorowski J (ed.). Community pediatrics: Making child health at the
community level an integral part of pediatric training and practice.
Pediatrics 115(4, Suppl.):1119-1212.



"Our findings indicate that there is room for improving health care system
support [for breastfeeding]," state the authors of an article published in
the March/April 2005 issue of Women's Health Issues. Breastfeeding
initiation rates are still below the Healthy People 2010 objectives, which
state that by 2010, 75% of mothers will initiate breastfeeding, and 50%
will breastfeed until their infants reach age 6 months. The article
examines key variables and their impact on breastfeeding initiation among
women with low incomes. The analysis includes sociodemographic
characteristics and measures of attitudes, the health care system and
family support, and perceived control over time and social constraints
barriers to breastfeeding.

The study was conducted as part of the national Loving Support Makes
Breastfeeding Work campaign. Study participants included a sample of women
in Mississippi who were enrolled in Medicaid and who delivered an infant
in spring 2000. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to
participating women in summer 2000 to collect data on infant feeding
method, attitudes about benefits of and barriers to breastfeeding,
perceived control, and sociodemographic characteristics. Telephone
follow-up was conducted for women who did not respond to either of two
mailings. A total of 733 women (61%) completed the survey, including 532
who completed mail surveys and 201 who completed telephone surveys.

The authors found that

* The breastfeeding initiation rate was 38%.

* Women who were older, white, non-Hispanic, college-educated, married,
and not WIC-certified were more likely to be breastfeeding than formula
feeding at hospital discharge.

* Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding was associated with higher
breastfeeding rates, while embarrassment about breastfeeding was
associated with lower rates.

* Women who were encouraged to breastfeed by the hospital delivery nurse
or lactation specialist/peer counselor were more than twice as likely than
other women to initiate breastfeeding.

* Women whose families encouraged formula feeding were half as likely as
women whose families encouraged breastfeeding to initiate breastfeeding.

* Adding the health care system support variables explained the
association between breastfeeding initiation and women's perceived control
over time and social constraints barriers (school and work issues) to

The authors conclude that supportive hospital practices, family
interventions, and public health education campaigns are needed to promote
breastfeeding in women with low incomes.

Khoury AJ, Moazzem SW, Jarjoura CM, et al. 2005. Breast-feeding initiation
in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support, and perceived control.
Women's Health Issues 15(2):64-72. Abstract available at ... 0250bb941e.

Readers: More information about breastfeeding is available from the MCH
Library's organizations list, Breastfeeding, and from the annotated
bibliographies, Breastfeeding and Working Mothers, Breastfeeding: Consumer
Education Materials, and Breastfeeding Promotion, Support, and Education



"To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the hypothesis that
early emotional support, cognitive stimulation, and television viewing are
associated with subsequent bullying," state the authors of an article
published in the April 2005 issue of Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent
Medicine. Children's early home environments have been shown in many
studies to be strongly associated with the subsequent development of
antisocial behavior problems, but little research has examined the links
between early home environment and bullying behavior in particular. The
study described in this article sought to determine whether early
cognitive stimulation, early parental emotional support, and early
television watching constitute independent risk factors for subsequent

Data for the study were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of
Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults (NLSY-Child), which was conducted
biennially from 1986 through 2000. NLSY-Child includes information on
developmental assessment, family background, home environment, and health
history. The study sample consisted of all children who were ages 6-11 at
the time of the 2000 survey interview. The outcome measure involved
characterization of a child as a bully by his or her mother.

The authors found that

* A total of 1,266 children had complete data for the basic set of variables.

* Approximately 13% of the children were reported as bullies by their

* The cognitive stimulation and emotional support scores at age 4 were
significantly lower among children who were subsequently reported to be
bullies than among those who were subsequently reported to be nonbullies.

* The average number of hours of television per day at age 4 was
significantly greater among children who were subsequently reported to be
bullies than among those who were subsequently reported to be nonbullies.

* After controlling for bullying behavior at age 4 (N=641), early
television viewing was significantly predictive of subsequent bullying,
emotional support was protective, and cognitive stimulation was not

"These results are consistent with a causal role for early emotional
support (as a protector) and early television viewing (as a risk factor)
in the subsequent development of bullying," state the authors.

Zimmerman FJ, Glew GM, Christakis DA, et al. 2005. Early cognitive
stimulation, emotional support, and television watching as predictors of
subsequent bullying among grade-school children. Archives of Pediatric and
Adolescent Medicine 159(4):384-388. Abstract available at ... /159/4/384.

Readers: More information is available from the MCH Library's annotated
bibliography, Bullying, at ... ng&-search.


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Child Health and Georgetown University. MCH Alert is produced by Maternal
and Child Health Library at the National Center for Education in Maternal
and Child Health under its cooperative agreement (U02MC00001) with the
Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services
Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Maternal
and Child Health Bureau reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and
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contact us at the address below.

MANAGING EDITOR: Jolene Bertness
CO-EDITOR: Tracy Lopez

MCH Alert
Maternal and Child Health Library
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Phone: (202) 784-9770
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Denise (29) Co-coordinator for WI
Jason (32)
Ariana (22 months)5/3/03-just shy of 35 weeks: Class 1 HELLP

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